Cubic Kilometer Detector
IceCube had a block of extremely clear ice one cubic kilometer detector in it’s size and 1.5 to 2 kilometers below the surface; where it is very dark and has some high pressures to keep the ice clear and bubble-free. The ice has been embedded with 5,160 sensors that can detect very faint amounts of light that can reach it.
It is very rare that neutrinos will interact with the ice itself; as it passes through the detector. That happens when Grant said “They produce a changed particle such as an electron. Light travels faster in a vacuum and more slowly in ice. But a particle is produced by a neutrino interacting with the ice travels faster than at a typical speed of light in ice. When it does that, it bursts into a blue light called Cherenkov radiation, is produced.” Grant described it as the “almost the optical equivalent of a sonic boom.” The higher energy the neutrino has, the more ice it lights up, and a high-energy of cosmic neutrino lights up and such as an enormous amount of the detector.
A fact is that a large detector is needed to capture all of the energy from the a single neutrino of this kind on Earth. The IceCube has collaborated that to take the 1st look to only study the neutrinos above 1 peta-electron-volt and to detect the two most energetic neutrinos that have been found in April 2012. When they go back and search again through the data and finally find 26 of the slightly lower energies, but above the 30 tera-electron-volt that are to be detected between May 2010 and May 2012. Some of these are less than high-energy neutrinos that may have been produced by cosmic rays in the Earth’s atmosphere, the calculations were suggested that most of them would have likely came from space.
The data was sorted and was analyzed in such a way as to exclude. As much as possible, neutrinos that did not come from space and to the other types of particles that may have tripped off the detector or something else happened to them. Canada has played a key role in the study by crunching data with a federally funded computer that has clustered at the University of Alberta called West-grid.
“One hundred per cent of our reconstruction and simulations were running there, and without it , if I do not think we would be able to all or the work that was required,” said Nathan Whitethorn, a researcher at the University of Wisconsin-Madison who had presented the preliminary results at a conference in May. The Ice Cube collaboration includes about 250 physicists and engineers from Canada, the United States, Germany, Sweden, Belgium, Switzerland, Japan, New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Korea. The detector has the cost of $279 million US (which is $290 million) and it was completed in December 2010, but they had already started collecting the data even before the completion.